achievement levels/proficiency levels: Descriptions of a test taker's level of competency in a particular area of knowledge or skill, usually defined as ordered categories on a continuum, often labeled from "basic" to "advanced," or "novice" to "expert," that constitute broad ranges for classifying performance. Grant Wiggins . Academic appeal Academic appeals are only concerned with Assessment Board decisions and … informed consent: The agreement of a person, or that person's legal representative, for some procedure to be performed on or by the individual, such as taking a test or completing a questionnaire. In some cases terms and definitions have also been collected from earlier publications (e.g. cognitive assessment: The process of systematically collecting test scores and related data in order to make judgments about an individual's ability to perform various mental activities involved in the processing, acquisition, retention, conceptualization, and organization of sensory, perceptual, verbal, spatial, and psychomotor information. So, in keeping with the ADPRIMA approach to explaining things in as straightforward and meaningful a way as possible, here are what I think are useful descriptions of these three fundamental terms. See job analysis. criterion-referenced score interpretation: The meaning of a test score for an individual or an average score for a defined group, indicating an individual’s or group’s level of performance in relationship to some defined criterion domain. It is there-fore important to establish a basic conceptual understanding of risk and clear definitions of the various terms used to describe risk, risk assessment, and risk management, while maintaining relevance to wildland fire management. See alternate forms. (See also aptitude.) composite score: A score that combines several scores according to a specified formula. false negative: An error of classification, diagnosis, or selection in which an individual does not meet the standard based on the assessment for inclusion in a particular group but in truth does (or would) meet the standard. See prompt. Glossary of Assessment Terms; Overview of Assessment ; College Wide Competencies and Supporting Outcomes; Assessment Rubrics; Accountability: The demand by a community (public officials, employers, and taxpayers) for school officials to prove that money invested in education has led to measurable learning. Domain/content sampling: The process of selecting test items, in a systematic way, to represent the total set of items measuring a domain. Please do comment, suggest amendments or additions. See random sample, sample. There are 76 terms below, including many question types. A. … EXPLORE THE SEARCHABLE ASSESSMENT GLOSSARY. program evaluation: The collection and synthesis of evidence about the use, operation, and effects of a program; the set of procedures used to make judgments about a program’s design, implementation, and outcomes. Length and Distance Inch - The inch (or inches for plural) is a small unit of length. local evidence: Evidence (usually related to reliability/precision or validity) collected for a specific test and a specific set of test takers in a single institution or at a specific location. constructed-response items/tasks/exercises: An exercise or task for which test takers must create their own responses or products rather than choose a response from an enumerated set. The units to be used must be stated explicitly. benchmark assessments: Assessments administered in educational settings at specified times during a curriculum sequence, to evaluate students' knowledge and skills relative to an explicit set of longer-term learning goals. validity argument: An explicit justification of the degree to which accumulated evidence and theory support the proposed interpretation(s) of test scores for their intended uses. The term is not used to describe tests of speed. validation: The process through which the validity of the proposed interpretation of test scores for their intended uses is investigated. coaching: Planned short-term instructional activities for prospective test takers provided prior to the test administration for the primary purpose of improving their test scores. Changes made to a test that has been translated into the language of a target group that takes into account the nuances of the language and culture of that group. Measuring healthy days: Population assessment of health-related quality of life. 2. It is preferred that a + and - sign precede the number or quantity. matrix sampling: A measurement format in which a large set of test items is organized into a number of relatively short item sets, each of which is randomly assigned to a sub-sample of test takers, thereby avoiding the need to administer all items to all test takers. differential test functioning: Differential performance at the test or dimension level indicating that individuals from different groups who have the same standing on the characteristic assessed by a test do not have the same expected test score. RELIABILITY – In assessment refers to the consistency and fairness of the assessment used in assessing student learning. Glossary of Standardized Testing Terms. Glossary of Terms on Assessment. See sensitivity and specificity. top-down selection: Selecting applicants on the basis of rank ordered test score from highest to lowest. See response interaction probability. Glossary of Assessment Terms. scale: 1. performance assessments: Assessments for which the test taker actually demonstrates the skills the test is intended to measure by doing tasks that require those skills. ability/parameter: In item response theory (IRT), a theoretical value indicating the level of a test taker on the ability or trait measured by the test; analogous to the concept of true score in classical test theory. empirical evidence: Evidence based on some form of data, as opposed to that based on logic or theory. See Internal consistency reliability. The components of the aggregate score may be weighted or not depending on the interpretation to be given to the aggregate score. The system of numbers, and their units, by which a value is reported on some dimension of measurement. See Practice Analysis. scaling: The process of creating a scale or a scale score in order to enhance test score interpretation by placing scores from different tests or test forms onto a common scale or by producing scale scores designed to support score interpretations. job performance measurement: An incumbent's observed performance of a job that can be evaluated by a job sample test, an assessment of job knowledge, or ratings of the incumbent's actual performance on the job. The scores may be raw or standardized. See standard error of measurement, systematic error, random error and true score. formative assessment: An assessment process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning with the goals of improving students' achievement of intended instructional outcomes. For an extended assessment glossary, see Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Measurement of group performance against an established standard administered at a specific point along the path toward accomplishing the standard. In scoring constructed responses tasks, procedures used during training and scoring to achieve a desired level of scorer agreement. test form: a set of test items or exercises that meet requirements of the specifications for the testing program. See cognitive assessment. cross-validation: A procedure in which a scoring system for predicting performance, derived from one sample, is applied to a second sample in order to investigate the stability of prediction of the scoring system. Any change in test content, format (including response format), or administration conditions that is made to increase the test accessibility for individuals who otherwise would face construct-irrelevant barriers on the original test. ERIC Digest. For many of the terms, multiple definitions can be found in the literature; also, technical usage may differ from common usage. Any specific number resulting from the assessment of an individual such as a raw score, scale score, estimate of a latent variable, a production count, an absence record, a course grade, a rating. meta-analysis: A statistical method of research in which the results from independent, comparable studies are combined to determine the size of an overall effect or the degree of relationship between two variables. Scale scores are typically used to facilitate interpretation. See predictive bias, construct underrepresentation, construct irrelevance, fairness. 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting & Online Repository, National Council on Measurement in Education. Alternative assessment – a type of assessment that requires demonstration of skills acquired other than cognitive skills; requires a deeper level of learning. psychological testing: The use of tests or inventories to assess particular psychological characteristics of an individual. conditional standard error of measurement: The standard deviation of measurement errors that affect the scores of test takers at a specified test score level. growth models: Statistical models that measure students' progress on achievement tests by comparing the test scores of the same students over time. The reference population may be defined in terms of test taker age, grade, or clinical status at time of testing or other characteristics. generalizability theory: Methodological framework for evaluating reliability/precision in which various sources error variance are estimated through the application of the statistical techniques of analysis of variance. *Meta-evaluation: A systematic and objective assessment that aggregates findings and recommendations from a series of evaluations. This glossary includes terms pertinent to operations management. Tests created to measure … test publisher: An entity, individual, organization, or agency that produces and or distributes a test. predictive bias: The systematic under- or over-prediction of criterion performance for people belonging to groups differentiated by characteristics not relevant to the criterion performance. test-taking strategies: Strategies that test takers might use while taking the test to improve their performance, such as time management or the elimination of obvious incorrect options on a multiple-choice question before responding to the question. calibration: 1. Width - The measurement of the distance of a side of an object. See generalizability theory, classical test theory, precision of measurement. Ability. selection: The acceptance or rejection of applicants for a particular educational or employment opportunity. Glossary of assessment terms A guide to help you understand the terms used in the assessment of taught programmes. See cut scores, performance level, performance level descriptor. criterion-referenced assessment. Activities that approximate the instruction provided by regular school curricula or training programs are not typically referred to as coaching. It is a number or quantity, which defines the limit that errors will not exceed, when the device is used under reference operating conditions. fake bad: Extent to which test takers exaggerate their responses (e.g., symptom over- endorsement) to test items in an effort to appear impaired. vocational assessment: A specialized type of psychological assessment designed to generate hypotheses and inferences about interests, work needs and values, career development, vocational maturity, and indecision. Accommodated scores should be sufficiently comparable to unaccommodated scores that they can be aggregated together. prompt/item prompt/writing prompt: The question, stimulus, or instructions that elicit a test taker’s response. See job performance measurement. neuropsychological assessment: A specialized type of psychological assessment of normal or pathological processes affecting the central nervous system and the resulting psychological and behavioral functions or dysfunctions. In test administration, maintaining a consistent testing environment and conducting the test according to detailed rules and specifications, so that testing conditions are the same for all test takers on the same and multiple occasions. score: 1. See scale. flag: An indicator attached to a test score, a test item, or other entity to indicate a special status. While assessments are often equated with traditional testsespecially the standardized tests developed by testing companies and administered to large populations of studentseducators use a diverse array of assessment tools and methods to measure everything from a … See sensitivity and specificity. moderator variable: A variable that affects the direction or strength of the relationship between two other variables. See adjusted validity/reliability coefficient. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. position: In employment contexts, the smallest organizational unit, a set of assigned duties and responsibilities that are performed by a person within an organization. inter-rater reliability: consistency in rank ordering of ratings across raters. Bilingual/mulitlingual: Having a degree of proficiency in two or more languages. Posted on January 25, 2013 by loidabmanuel330. from TC 37, 77, 86 and CISPR). Organization. group testing: Tests that are administered to groups of test takers, usually in a group setting, typically with standardized administration procedures and supervised by a proctor or test administrator. value-added modeling: A collection of complex statistical techniques that use multiple years of student outcome data, typically standardized test scores, to estimate the contribution of individual schools or teachers to student performance. documentation: The body of literature (e.g., test manuals, manual supplements, research reports, publications, user's guides, etc.) pilot test: A test administered to a sample of test takers to try out some aspects of the test or test items, such as instructions, time limits, item response formats, or item response options. See test manual. ERIC Digest. A measure of the consistency of test scores, also a measure of internal consistency. It was compiled to assist operations management students in courses at the University of Michigan Business School. computer-prepared interpretive report: A programmed interpretation of a test taker’s test results, based on empirical data and/or expert judgment using various formats such as narratives, tables, and graphs. Equivalence of the short item sets, or subsets, is not assumed. Contrast with accommodation / accommodated tests or assessments. standards-based assessment: Assessment of an individual’s standing with respect to systematically described content and performance standards. response interaction probability (RIP): 1. alternate assessments or alternate tests: Used to evaluate the performance of students in educational setting who are unable to participate in standardized accountability assessments even with accommodations. inventory: A questionnaire or checklist that elicits information about an individual's personal opinions, interests, attitudes, preferences, personality characteristics, motivations, or typical reactions to situations and problems. The lat-ter two types of statistics are usually either parametric or nonparametric. gain score: In testing, the difference between two scores obtained by a test taker on the same test or two equated tests taken on different occasions, often before and after some treatment. convergent evidence: Evidence based on the relationship between test scores and other measures of the same or related construct. An assessment is said to be reliable when after a short period of time being given, it is re-administered to the same students with results that are highly similar or stable. The degree to which a construct measured by a test in one cultural or linguistic group is comparable to the construct measured by the same test in a different cultural or linguistic group. See value-added modeling. According to educator and author, Graham Nuthall, in his book The Hidden Lives of Learners, "In most of the classrooms we have studied, each student already knows about 40-50% of what the teacher is teaching." criterion domain: The construct domain of a variable that is used as a criterion. content domain: The set of behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes or other characteristics to be measured by a test, represented in detailed test specifications, and often organized into categories by which items are classified. validity generalization: Applying validity evidence obtained in one or more situations to other similar situations on the basis of methods such as meta-analysis. It is often stored for future use. See alternate forms, equating, calibration, moderation, projection, and vertical scaling. construct equivalence: 1. accommodations/accommodated tests or assessments: Adjustments that do not alter the assessed construct that are applied to test presentation, environment, content, format (including response format), or administration conditions for particular test takers that are embedded within assessments or applied after the assessment is designed. accountability index: A number or label that reflects a set of rules for combining scores and other information to form conclusions and inform decision making in an accountability system. practice analysis: An investigation of a certain occupation or profession to obtain descriptive information about the activities and responsibilities of the occupation or profession and about the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to engage successfully in the occupation or profession. test design: The process of developing detailed specifications for what a test is to measure and the content, cognitive level, format, and types of test items to be used. ability testing: The use of tests to evaluate the current performance of a person in some defined domain of cognitive, psychomotor, or physical functioning. cognitive science: The interdisciplinary study of learning and information processing. assessment literacy: Knowledge about testing that supports valid interpretations of test scores for their intended purposes, such as knowledge about test development practices, test score interpretations, threats to valid score interpretations, score reliability and precision, test administration, and use. alternate or alternative standards: Terms used in educational assessment to denote content and performance standards for students with significant cognitive disabilities. To put "standards-based" in front of such terms as instruction, assessment, testing, measurement, evaluation and other terms typically means that whatever teachers teach and students do in class is evaluated against specifically written and adopted standards, or goals and objectives, of achievement, usually written and adopted at the state or national level. the important role of teachers’ professional judgment in assessment for student learning. factor analysis: Any of several statistical methods of describing the interrelationships of a set of variables by statistically deriving new variables, called factors, that are fewer in number than the original set of variables. See restriction of range or variability. See alternate forms. See generalizability theory. cut score: A specified point on a score scale, such that scores at or above that point are reported, interpreted, or acted upon differently from scores below that point. A field test is generally more extensive than a pilot test. item response theory (IRT): A mathematical model of the functional relationship between performance on a test item, the test item’s characteristics, and the test taker's standing on the construct being measured. scoring rubric: The established criteria, including rules, principles, and illustrations, used in scoring constructed responses to individual tasks and clusters of tasks. relevant subgroup: A subgroup of the population for which the test is intended that is identifiable in some way that is relevant to the interpretation of test scores for their intended purposes. reliability/precision: The degree to which test scores for a group of test takers are consistent over repeated applications of a measurement procedure and hence are inferred to be dependable, and consistent for an individual test taker; the degree to which scores are free of random errors of measurement for a given group. user's guide: A publication prepared by test developers and publishers to provide information on a test's purpose, appropriate uses, proper administration, scoring procedures, normative data, interpretation of results, and case studies. alignment: Degree to which the content and cognitive demands of test questions match targeted content and cognitive demands described in the test specifications. specificity: In classification, diagnosis, and selection, the proportion of cases assessed or predicted not to meet the criteria which in truth do not meet the criteria. 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